Role of histone modifications in defining chromatin structure and function
byGelato K.A., Fischle W.
Gelato K.A. and Fischle W. (2008) Role of histone modifications in defining chromatin structure and function. Biological Chemistry 389:353-363
Chromosomes in eukaryotic cell nuclei are not uniformly organized, but rather contain distinct chromatin elements, with each state having a defined biochemical structure and biological function. These are recognizable by their distinct architectures and molecular components, which can change in response to cellular stimuli or metabolic requirements. Chromatin elements are characterized by the fundamental histone and DNA components, as well as other associated non-histone proteins and factors. Post-translationalmodifications of histone proteins in particular often correlate with a specific chromatin structure and function. Patterns of histonemodifications are implicated as having a role in directing the level of chromatin compaction, as well as playing roles in multiple functional pathways directing the readout of distinct regions of the genome. We review the properties of various chromatin elements and the apparent links of histone modifications with chromatin organization and functional output.